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10 Scientific Facts About Low Back Pain

26 Jan 2022

I was listening to the “Empowered by Pain” podcast this week, the topic of which was “Ten Scientific Facts About Low Back Pain” and thought I’d share it as there are so many useful messages in it for patients – whether your particular issue is low back pain or not.

The podcast is conducted by a group of physiotherapists and researchers at the forefront of research on the biopsychosocial approach to treating neuro-musculoskeletal pain.   The biopsychosocial model acknowledges that pain – in the absence of serious pathology – is multifactorial and can be caused by factors such as stress, fatigue, low mood, inactivity, unaccustomed activity, and many more factors.

The podcast is based on a paper that the researchers published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. It starts with a brief outline of ten facts about low back pain and is followed by a more in-depth discussion of each fact by the researchers.  You can listen to the podcast here.

The key messages are:

  • Persistent back pain can be scary, but it’s rarely dangerous.Getting older is not a cause of low back pain
  • Persistent back pain is rarely associated with any serious tissue damage.
  • Scans are important, but only for a minority of people.
  • Scans also often change, with most disc prolapses shrinking over time.
  • Pain with exercise and movement doesn’t mean you are doing harm or have to stop
  • Posture during sitting, standing and lifting do not predict low back pain
  • Back pain is not caused by a weak core
  • Backs do not wear out with everyday bending and loading
  • While flare ups can be very painful and scary, they are not usually related to damage.
  • Injections, surgery and strong drugs are rarely effective for persistent back pain in the long term.

Some of these messages will be surprising and need a little explanation: the idea that posture is not a cause of low back pain for example.  It doesn’t mean that posture isn’t relevant or that we might not want to change it.  Posture influences performance, our ability to adapt, and lack of movement variability due to posture could compromise our long term function – there just doesn’t seem to be a strong causal relationship between posture and low back pain.
I’ll be diving into these messages in subsequent newsletters and posting some of the relevant research behind the messages on my blog.

Ten scientific facts about low back pain:

More info about the BJsports paper here:

Photo by cottonbro from Pexels


What does Stretching do?  – Manual Therapy Effects – part III

03 May 2019

There’s no question that stretching feels good – at least after we’ve done it. But why is that; what has actually changed? And will stretching have a lasting effect on how flexible we are?

Short-term (immediate) increases in flexibility are probably due to viscoelastic changes in the muscle, or put more simply, a change in the relationship between the fluid/gel content of the muscle to the other stuff that comprises muscle – collagen, elastin, and muscle cells.  That is, when we stretch a muscle we increase the pressure in the muscle compartment (muscle surrounded by connective tissue, or fascia) and fluid gets squeezed out. We immediately feel less stiff.  And if we wanted to measure the stiffness in the muscle (stiffness being the force required to stretch the muscle), it would indeed be less stiff.  However, viscoelastic changes are short-lived and tend not to result in long-term improvements in flexibility.

If we do regular stretching, then something different happens.  It’s not that our muscles get longer, or even less stiff; rather our tolerance to stretch increases.  What does that mean?  It means that the regular signals from our proprioceptors on being stretched – joint, muscle, tendon –  to the neurological system/brain stimulates a change (neuroplasticity) whereby the muscle is enabled to elongate more.  Effectively, the control centre allows more movement.

Why is this useful to know?

Because one round of stretching (treatment, yoga class) is reducing stiffness largely because of fluid changes in the muscle – rather than changing anything in our nervous system – it will tend not to have a lasting effect.  Having said that, we may still get some lasting benefit if there is carryover of the short term gain in flexibility to our daily activities or workouts, which means that we are effectively continuing to move/stretch our muscles more than previously.

The implication being that we need to stretch regularly so that changes are made in our nervous system/brain that allow muscles to lengthen more.  It is this regular input to the nervous system that creates long-term change.

The upshot: stretch/move/do exercises little and often if you want to improve flexibility.

Image by Jonathon Sautter from Pixabay


What does “cracking” your back (HVT) do, and how helpful is it? – Manual Therapy Effects, part II

14 Mar 2019


What does clicking your back do, and how helpful is it?

As usual there is no simple answer to this question, and having taken a fresh look at the research relating to the effects of High Velocity Thrust (HVT) I am left scratching my head as to how to make sense of it and relate it to the lay person.

When I was at college we were taught that when we delivered an HVT to a joint – the object of which is to create a cavitation, or gapping of the joint surfaces at high speed which leads to the clicking sound, we were “unlocking” or “releasing” a joint that had somehow become locked or stuck.  In my latter years at college the idea of entrapment of the articular capsule surrounding the joint became prevalent.  Then as we understood better what the clicking sound was – fracturing of the synovial fluid as the joint surfaces gap – there was talk of this effect allowing a temporary increased range of movement at the joint that was to be taken advantage of to stretch surrounding tissues.

So what does the current body of evidence tell us?  What we can say is that the effect of the HVT is a neurophysiological one – rather than a mechanical one – and that all of the effects listed above are unlikely to be occurring; in fact I’ll go so far as to say “not” occurring.  The delivery of an HVT to a spinal joint or joints seems to modulate the neural circuits associated with pain output via neurotransmitters like oxytocin, serotonin, endocannabinoids, and endo-opoids – to name a familiar few.  And these “immediate” effects have been measured in repeatable studies.

I’m reassured to an extent that one of the tools in my osteopathic toolkit that I use, and have used, for almost two decades, has been shown to have some value clinically.  The potential problem with these studies is that they measure only the immediate effects.   So while HVT has an immediate measureable effect on pain relief, so do lots of other things like simple touch, kinesio-taping, acupressure, to name a few.   More obscurely, another study measures “the immediate effects of improved active mouth opening after hamstring stretching” and finds a significant immediate effect.   The point being that an immediate effect doesn’t necessarily translate to clinical significance, i.e., whether it has a real genuine, palpable, noticeable effect on the patient’s daily life and ability to function.  We don’t yet have the research to say that this is the case.

I have to admit that the current evidence base we have on HVT leaves me feeling uncomfortable about my own practice and the circumstances in which I currently deliver HVTs or thrusts to joints.  There is no doubt that some patients like and respond well to being “cracked”, as it is often expressed in lay terms.  Indeed, a patient who comes with an expectation that what is required for them to recover is for the painful part to be clicked is unlikely to feel better without that eventuality.  Expectation and placebo effects add further complexity to the issue and speak to the importance of educating patients about the effects of manual therapy.

And while I have come to use HVT less as science has revealed more about pain, biomechanics and neurophysiology, it is hard to let go of a tool that I have long found to be useful, in spite of a misguided belief about what it was doing.  I will continue to use HVT albeit with careful consideration as to whether it is clinically justifiable in each circumstance.

It is not that HVT is an inherently wrong or dangerous thing to be doing to patients – though there are many circumstances in which it definitely shouldn’t be used – but it can, in some circumstances, get in the way of a patient recovering.   An understanding that nothing in ones’ spine needs unlocking, putting back, or releasing, is a much better starting point for any therapeutic, rehabilitation process.



The Rubber Hand Illusion: Manual Therapy Effects, Part 1

13 Feb 2019

rubber hand

In the rubber hand illusion individuals have a rubber hand placed before them on a table while their real hand is placed out of sight on the other side of a screen.  A researcher then strokes the fingers of the rubber and real hand simultaneously for a couple of minutes until the individual starts to feel sensation in the rubber hand and that the rubber hand placed in front of them belongs to them.  This is put to the test by the researcher delivering a pin prick or blow to the rubber hand at which point the individual flinches and retracts their real hand evasively.  You can watch it on a clip from a recent episode of Horizon here.

It’s not by any means a perfect analogy for how manual therapy works, but it demonstrates the plastic nature of our body awareness.  And it is via the plasticity of the neurological system, and in particular our proprioceptive system – the receptors in our muscles, joints, tendons and ligaments that feed information to the brain about the force, length, speed and acceleration being experienced by them – that the laying on of hands, be it through massage, or hands guiding physical movement, has its effect.
In a coming series of newsletters I’ll be looking at what the current body of evidence tells us about how different manual therapy techniques are most likely having their effect.  I’ll also be looking at what we used to think those techniques were doing – breaking adhesions between layers of tissues, unlocking joints, putting bones back, to name a few – but now firmly know they are not, and why it is helpful, if you are seeking manual therapy, to understand this.


Muscle Stiffness – Part II: Expectation Violation

28 Nov 2018


In part I of this post I talked about how a recent research paper suggested that persistent muscle stiffness – like persistent pain – could be due to a perceptual error:  the nervous system has become oversensitive – the threat of damage has passed but it is still on high alert, and therefore we perceive pain or stiffness.

To be clear, we are not talking about stiffness that is there for a reason – disc prolapse, muscle sprain or tendon overload – but persistent stiffness or pain that has exceeded its need in terms of any potential or real damage.  I’m going to use pain and stiffness interchangeably, because the same applies to both of them.

There are various ways to come at persistent pain: distraction techniques, relaxation techniques, looking at sleep health, making modifications to the way we go about daily activities, and so on.  But there is another powerful approach we can take to correct perceptual error, and to understand how that works we need to understand a little about how the brain works.  Don’t worry, I’ll keep this simple with an analogy.

Early ideas of brain function were squarely based on a computer analogy: the brain was an input-output device that moved sensory information through different processing stages until reaching an end point.  In this model visual perception would start with data received by the eyes that is then interpreted in the visual centre at the back of the brain resulting in an image.  But we know that the wiring does not run from A to B to C:  there are feedback loops from C to B, C to A, and B to A.  Throughout the brain there is as much feedback as feedforward – a feature of the brain colloquially called loopiness.

What is the advantage of a loopy brain?  It permits us to do better than a stimulus-response behaviour system would allow, and instead confers the ability to make predictions ahead of actual sensory input.

Consider the act of catching a ball.  If our nervous system worked in an ABC fashion, there would be a delay of hundreds of milliseconds between the light reaching your retina and the motor command being sent to catch the ball, and we would constantly reach for where the ball used to be.  We are able to catch balls only because we have deeply hardwired internal models of physics.

This is a specific example of internal models of the outside world.  The brain predicts what will happen if you were to perform some action under specific conditions.

But we know that internal models also underlie conscious perception.  The brain matches expectations to incoming sensory data to give rise to perception.   When we suffer pain for a long period of time, pain itself becomes hardwired.  When we bend forward to pick something up, consciously and unconsciously we have an expectation of pain and so that is what we experience.

So how can we change the internal model that feeds into our perception of pain or stiffness?

Let’s take the example of driving a car.  We generally drive without giving any conscious thought to how we do it.  We have an internal model of motor commands that combines with incoming sensory information so that although you are conscious of driving, you’re conscious neither of the movements nor of the sensations of driving unless something changes – like a strong wind or a flat tyre.  When these new situations cause your normal expectations to be violated, consciousness comes online and your internal model adjusts.

Only when our expectations are violated and our predictions prove wrong can we access our internal model and have it adjust.  Expectation violation is used in treating mental health issues – phobias in particular – and is key in changing our internal predictive models.

How can we make use of expectation violation in relation to persistent pain or stiffness?  In a nutshell, it involves doing the thing that is painful, or something close to it, usually against resistance (which we know affords a degree of inhibition of pain), pushing through some initial sensations of pain or stiffness – the patient acknowledging (perhaps with some surprise) that their pain or stiffness is no worse, or is diminishing with repetition – then gradually increasing the intensity with which the action or movement is performed.

So if forward bending is a painful movement (that will generally therefore be avoided), I might have someone bend at the hips and knees (straight back) with a weight in each hand and gradually tweak the movement towards a forward bend.   I do this a fair bit with any patient with low back pain for the related by slightly different purpose of building a sense of confidence in their ability to move.

That may sound straightforward, but when pain is persistent it is far from a simple.  I should add that using resistance work in this way is just one of many interventions that might be in play.  There is also much to consider, the most important being that pushing into pain can have the opposite effect of sensitising (flaring-up) the area further.  That sounds like a contradiction, and there is a fine line that one walks between the two possibilities, and one has to be ready to back off or change tack if any increase in pain doesn’t settle quickly (in a day or so).   It would be unusual if the road to recovery were a smooth one; expect it to be gradual, with setbacks along the way.

Eric Meira (aka the Science PT) writes about Load and Expectation Violation – in somewhat more colourful style – here, and again here in Hunting Pain


Why do Muscles Feel Stiff – Part I

19 Sep 2018

Moseley Indentor

Muscle stiffness is a common complaint of patients presenting to my clinic.  Common questions are “why do I feel so stiff?”; “why do my muscles feel so tight?”; “why do I have knots?”

In the most straightforward of cases, patients will report that their stiffness relates to a certain posture, position, or movement, and when I assess them I will find a palpable tightness and an associated limitation of movement in a related part that is suggestive of the muscles in question being overloaded.

It would be reasonable to assume that the brain registers threat in terms of a lack of blood flow to the overworked muscle, which in turn could cause metabolic stress and activate chemical sensors (nociceptors).

But sometimes the muscle stiffness complained of correlates neither with palpable stiffness, nor with a reduction in movement.  So why then do we still feel stiff?

While there is only limited research on stiffness, a paper published by Moseley and Stanton in 2017, showed that in subjects with chronic low back pain, subjective stiffness correlates poorly with objective stiffness i.e., participants’ ratings of how stiff their back muscles felt related poorly to the objective stiffness measured by the researchers using a piece of kit called an indentor.  The authors posit that the reason for this is a “perceptual error”:

“feelings of back stiffness are a protective perceptual construct, rather than reflecting biomechanical properties of the back”

Just as we can feel pain in the absence of damage – because pain results from a perception of threat – see blog about this here – so, it would seem, we can feel stiffness in the absence of any objective tightness. The reason for this, just as with pain, may be a perception (wrongly or rightly) of threat to the muscles and joints where stiffness is felt.

In this case, we might think of stiffness as we do chronic pain as having become a learned response; the nervous system is over-sensitive to information it receives (in this case oversensitive to the need for blood flow to the area).  The brain in not registering stiffness just due to inputs from the muscle itself, but also due to associations with environments (computers), lack of sleep, stress, fear or avoidance of movement.

So what can we do to address muscle stiffness when we suspect that it is not just mechanical but due also to the area being sensitised?  This will be the subject of Part II of this blog post.


Image: The indentor used to measure muscle stiffness in paper ” Feeling Stiffness in the Back: a protective perceptual inference in chronic back pain” by Stanton, Moseley, Wong and Kawchuk, in Scientific Reports, Aug 17.

With permission:


Sun’s Out Guns Out

14 May 2018

Mr Burgundy

Flexing in front of the mirror actually makes your biceps bigger!!!  Well maybe.  A study just out showed that focusing on the targeted muscle/movement during weight-training (watching oneself in the mirror might fall into that category) increased arm circumference by 12.6%  (internal focus) compared to a group who focused on the outcome/weight itself/ or action (external focus) – 6% increase.

Using an external focus of attention (the outcome rather than the movement) has been shown to improve sporting performance and endurance and is used extensively in sports coaching, where there is a good amount of research to support it.  Studies on weight training are more limited and so far show conflicting results.  See Effects of Attentional Focusing Strategies on Muscular Power in Older Women, Jul 15) which comes up with the opposite finding.  I’m afraid the jury is still out on this one!

There are compelling reasons to incorporate resistance training into your exercise routine.  Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem.

Using load in your training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat and improving insulin sensitivity; enhance cardiovascular health by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing bad cholesterol, and increasing good cholesterol; promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density.

Resistance training may also be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle

If it’s a time issue that’s stopping you from adding weights to your routine then there’s good news in this piece of research just out: Do We Need a Cool-Down After Exercise? Sports Med, April 2018

The conclusion is no.   Existing evidence would suggest that a cool down does not significantly ameliorate either delayed onset muscle soreness or muscle stiffness after exercise, prevent injury, or improve exercise performance later the same day (though it might to a bit the next!).  I’m not sure I’ll be giving up my warm down just yet, but I won’t beat myself up too much if I don’t have time either.

Enjoy the sun, and do work on those abs, guns, and buns if you get the chance!

See also:
Resistance Training is Medicine: Effects of Strength Training on Health – Current Sports Medicine Reports, August 2012

Image: Still from The Legend of Ron Burgundy


Are you sitting comfortably: the myth of good posture

22 Mar 2018

low ceiling

That’s the Guardian’s (5/3/18) headline – not mine – for an article in which two well regarded physical therapists and researchers explain why it doesn’t matter how we sit, or what posture we assume because there is no evidence to support an association between sitting and back or neck pain.

Slouch on: bad posture not bad for your back (

This was the heading of a radio interview posted on Twitter featuring another two physiotherapists and researchers from Western Australia, in December 2016.

Confused by this message?  You should be!  It was not so long ago that we were being told that sitting was the new smoking (and maybe it still is, because sitting may well have health implications well beyond back and neck pain).   I agree with a lot of what these researchers say but I worry that sometimes these, dare I say it headline grabbing statements, are sending out a message that is too simplistic.

This is a bit of a long post, so go to the last three paragraphs if you want to cut to the chase.  Read on if you want a better understanding of why we are getting mixed messages about sitting.

I took a look at the paper behind the Twitter headline.  To cut a long research paper short, the researchers looked at participants’ normal sitting posture and took lots of measurements relating to it – that bit is fine – then had them respond to a questionnaire that asked them a whole range of psycho -social questions – how stressed are you? how much sleep do you get? as well as how many hours are you on the computer per week? playing games on the computer per week? exercise? They also got a raft of questions about neck pain: do they/have they suffered neck pain?  what duration? is it worse when you sit? etc.

I often feel like I need to go back to college and do a research module in order to be confident about critiquing a research paper, but not in this case.  I reckon my seven-year-old daughter would see one problem with this research in no time.  The radio presenter is straight onto it: the study was done on 17 year olds!

The researcher’s response to this is that in another study he has done, one in five seventeen year olds suffered neck or back pain.  I haven’t looked at the latter paper yet, but again, it doesn’t ring true in my experience – though I accept there may be many reasons why I don’t see these patients. I will be take a look at the paper and report back.  Don’t get me wrong – interviewee Peter O’Sullivan is a good guy and says a lot of good things in the radio interview above.

I looked at a 2010 systematic review of the association between sitting and low back pain.  It forms part of the limited body of evidence that fails to show an association between LBP and sitting.  Of the five papers with data of good enough quality to include in the study, only three were prospective studies.

A prospective study is the ideal for answering this kind of question (note the paper discussed above was not prospective).  You start with a group of healthy participants and you follow them for a number of years – the more the better –  during which time they report on a variety of variables, including some very specific to sitting.  You’d want to know about the nature of the sitting – desktop computer, laptop, duration of time over the week, number of hours without a break and so on and so on, as well as all the psycho- social factors and other bio factors – exercise, other tasks.  And of course you’d want them to report on pain.

But one of the prospective studies was of construction workers – I’m sure I don’t need to explain further (they didn’t do much sitting). One was on newly employed workers (same problem as the 17 year olds, and it was only a two year study).  The third was on nurses, which would seem to have more validity but it was only for a 12 month study and was from 2004 (not in itself a problem except for the point that I’m coming to re laptops).

My point here is that when experts say there is no evidence to support a hypothesis – in this case “slouched sitting causes low back (or neck) pain” –  we need to be sure that the research to which they are referring is rigorous enough. In my opinion the results thrown up by the current body of research are questionable.  We just don’t have sufficient evidence yet to say conclusively that how we sit and for how long is unimportant to back and neck pain.

A great litmus test in these situations is to apply common sense.  Imagine you were made to crouch in a room with a low ceiling for a few hours.  Do you think your neck or back might start aching?  Similarly, if you sit at a laptop – which often combines a degree of slouch with looking down – for eight hours a day (doesn’t count if you separate the screen and keyboard) I’d predict that the odds of your suffering back or neck pain would go up.  Whether you do or not would depend on a whole lot of other factors.

Once again, biomechanics – the study of forces (like gravity) on living organisms (us) matters.  Don’t worry too much about how you sit, but be sure to fidget and take breaks from sitting.  The body has an amazing ability to compensate, but there is a threshold at which the body’s natural reserve will be used up.  Sitting staring into a laptop for eight hours a day, five days a week, perhaps combined with some other biomechanical or psycho-social factors could easily push you past that threshold.

I’ve not moved from my computer for two hours and my back hurts – seriously!

(Image: still from Being John Malkovich)


Make Coordination and Variability a Priority

18 Jan 2018


Key message 1: Coordination plays a key role in our having ease of movement and staying injury free

Key message 2:  We can improve our coordination

Key message 3: We also need variability in the tasks or exercises we undertake.

Coordination is what makes some people move with ease, grace and fluidity while others’ movement appears laboured, difficult, and sometimes painful.

Good coordination really amounts to the activation of the right muscles, in the right sequence, at the right time for the performance of a particular task and helps to keep us pain free and avoid injury.  It also contributes to other motor abilities such as mobility, stability, balance, and strength (sport-specific strength training can be described as coordination against resistance*).

Coordination, therefore, should be a prime training objective.

Coordination can be improved with any task, movement, or exercise using tweaks in the way in which the task/movement is done, and then progressively tweaking back towards the intended task. It requires practice and repetition.

A practical application might be improving coordination during an forward lunge. Initial tweaks might involve holding the back of a chair or wall while lunging; starting with stepping and progressing to a lunge; stepping out wide; adding a hand reach across the body.

But coordination alone is not enough.  It will not prepare you for the unpredictable or unaccustomed –  having your children jump on and hang off you  (a particular favourite of my girls), tripping up or stumbling, changes in terrain or training surface.  For these things we need adaptability, and to acquire adaptability we need to vary the exercises or tasks we do, and the way we do them.

What might that mean in practice?

If you like to squat at the gym, then you might vary the way you squat: play with foot position – staggered, wide, narrow, toes in/out; vary the weights you use: hand weights, bar, medicine ball; vary the rate and rhythm of the squat; take small steps within the squat position – lateral, forward, backward etc.

If you go to a Pilates class and the exercises are the same every week then maybe try a different class.

If you are digging, weeding, or raking the garden, try to vary the way you work, even if it is only a slight change to the way your body would prefer to perform the task.

For a more significant challenge to your coordination try a dance or Zumba class.

Or just play – with the kids or grandchildren, frisbee, hula!

The upshot is that just as we need to keep challenging our brains in new and interesting ways in order to keep our memories and other cognitive functions sharp, so we need to stimulate our motor system in new and interesting ways in order to stay physically sharp.

Use it or lose it!

* Frans Bosch – Strength Training and Coordination: An integrative Approach


Why Biomechanics Matter

01 Dec 2017


Key message 1: Psychology is always important.  Pain is an output of the brain; it is one of the ways the brain lets us know that it perceives a threat.

Key message 2: Biomechanics is the study of forces (mechanics) and their effect on living systems (bio).

Key message 3: We are a living system interacting with a physical world of forces.

Key message 4: Biomechanics is always important.

There has been a huge shift to the biopsychosocial model in manual therapy in the last decade and understanding how psychological factors influence our experience of pain has and continues to change the way physical therapists communicate with, educate, and treat patients.

I think it would be fair to say that while psychological considerations have been in the ascendency, the idea that biomechanics doesn’t matter has been gaining some traction.

Why biomechanics matter

So just in case you are thinking – in the light of my pain series – that pain is all in the brain, then let me explain in broad terms why biomechanics matters hugely.  This might seem blindingly obvious; to say that biomechanics doesn’t matter is like saying gravity doesn’t matter. The more important question might be: when is biomechanics important and when are psychological factors important?

Eric Meira (aka the science PT) uses a great analogy of asking a bunch of paratroopers how they’d feel about being asked to jump out of a plane at 11000 feet without a parachute?  “Scared of getting injured you idiot” comes the reply.  Is a psychological intervention appropriate in this case to help them overcome their fear of injury? Of course not!

What are they scared of? Not being able to handle the huge amount of force with which their mass suddenly decelerates as it hits the ground.  F=ma.  Biomechanics! (Eric Meira)

In a similar way, it’s not enough to tell someone that it is safe to jump, bend, or run when they are in pain.  The role of the physical therapist is to enable successful movement, train, and educate in such a way that it is safe to do those things; provide the necessary safety equipment (motion, coordination and control) and training to use it (at different speeds, positions, and with different loads).   Otherwise fear is a rational response.

When psychology is key

Sometimes we just become fearful of movement, or of re-injuring ourselves.  This may be because we have had an MRI scan that showed a bulging disc in our low back, or because our back has “gone” during lifting in the past, or a therapist or surgeon has told us not to make a certain movement with our back, knee, or shoulder.

The analogy now is that you are simply asking someone to step out of a plane that is sitting on the ground.   The individual needs to be shown that they have the motion, and control of that motion, to pursue meaningful activities with confidence.  And that means gradually progressing the level of difficulty of the activity and ideally moving beyond it, so that it can be performed at greater speed, with more load than necessary, and in more extreme joint positions.  You’ll hear me refer to this as building in a “buffer zone” of function.

In summary:

  • Psychology always needs to be considered
  • Biomechanics is the study of forces in living systems
  • We are a living system interacting with gravity and ground reaction force
  • Biomechanics matter